Basic Measurements

I've culled these measurements from sites all over the web, but if you click on the header it will take you to the originating site :0)

Approximate Conversions from Volume to Weight
1 large egg = 1/4 cup (4 tablespoons) = 2 ounces = 55 grams
1 large egg = 1/4 cup egg substitute liquid *
1 large egg white = 2 tablespoons = 1 ounce = 30 grams
2 large egg whites = 2 1/2 to 3 cups stiffly beaten
1 large egg yolk = 1 to 1 1/2 tablespoons = 2/3 ounces = 25 grams
1 large egg yolk = 2 tablespoons egg substitute liquid
1 dozen large eggs = 2 1/3 cups = 660 grams
1 dozen large egg whites = 1 1/2 cups = 360 grams
1 dozen large egg yolks = 7/8 cup = 300 grams
1 cup eggs = 4 to 5 large eggs
1 cup egg yolks = 11 to 12 large egg yolks
1 cup egg whites = 7 to 8 large egg whites
1 kilogram eggs (1,000 grams) = 18 large eggs
1 kilogram egg whites (1,000 grams) = 33 large egg whites
1 kilogram egg yolks (1,000 grams) = 40 large egg yolks

Sugar Temperatures:

110°C to 112°C
230°F to 234°F
Soft ball
112°C to 116°C
234°F to 240°F
Firm ball
118°C to 120°C
242°F to 248°F
Hard ball
121°C to 130°C
250°F to 268°F
Soft crack
132°C to 143°C
270°F to 290°F
Hard crack
146°C to 154°C
300°F to 310°F

From Recipes4Living:
Liquid Measure
1/5 tsp1 ml
1/4 tsp1 dash3 drops
1 tsp5 ml
1 tbsp3 tsp1/16 cup1/2 fl oz15 ml
2 tbsp6 tsp1/8 cup1 oz30 ml
4 tbsp12 tsp1/4 cup2 fl oz
5 1/3 tbsp1/3 cup
8 tbsp24 tsp1/4 pt1/2 cup4 fl oz118 ml
16 tbsp48 tsp1/2 pt1 cup8 fl oz237 ml
32 tbsp1 pt2 cups16 fl oz473 ml
64 tbsp1 qt2 pts4 cups32 fl oz946 ml (.95 liters)
1 gal4 qts8 pts16 cups128 fl oz3.8 liters
Dry Measure
1/8 tsp1 pinch
1 tbsp3 tsp1/16 cup1/2 fl oz14 grams
2 tbsp6 tsp1/8 cup1 fl oz28 grams
4 tbsp12 tsp1/4 cup2 fl oz57 grams
8 tbsp24 tsp1/2 cup4 oz113 grams1 stick butter
16 tbsp48 tsp1 cup8 oz227 grams1/2 lb
32 tbsp1 pt2 cups16 oz454 grams1 lb
1 qt2 pts4 cups32 oz907 grams2 lbs
2 gal8 qts16 pts1 peck
8 gal4 pecks1 bushel

Making Conversions
ounces to grams:multiply ounce figure by 28.3 to get number of grams
grams to ounces:multiply gram figure by .0353 to get number of ounces
pounds to grams:multiply pound figure by 453.59 to get number of grams
pounds to kilograms:multiply pounds by 0.45 to get number of kilograms
ounces to milliliters:multiply ounce figure by 30 to get number of milliliters
cups to liters:multiply cup figure by 0.24 to get number of liters
Some Common WeightsEgg Substitute
1 cup sifted flour5 oz1 large egg2 oz = 1/4 cup = 4 tbsp
1 cup sugar8 oz1 egg yolk1 tbsp + 1 tsp
1 cup brown sugar6 oz1 egg white2 tbsp +2 tsp
1 cup confectioner’s (powdered) sugar4.5 oz
Converting Fahrenheit to Celsius: subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit amount, multiply by 5 then divide by 9Converting Celsius to Fahrenheit: multiply the Celsius amount by 9, divide by 5, then add 32
-10-23 (freezer temp)275135
320 (water freezes)325162
6820 (room temp)375190
20596 (water simmers)450232
212100 (water boils)475246
225110500260 (broiling)

Fresh Yeast Conversion
fresh bakers yeast
Fresh yeast, also called baker’s yeast, cake yeast or compressed yeast is my preferred type of yeast when making bread.  It should be kept in the fridge and lasts up to 4 weeks.  Fresh yeast has no artificial additives.  Although not widely available in Australian shops, it is possible to find it in some delis and bakeries.
To buy fresh yeast look for a nice creamy colour without any dark or dried out spots.  It should smell pleasantly and crumble easily.  Greyish yeast that is stretchy and gummy is past the required freshness and might produce unsatisfactory loaf.  If in doubt, mix a small amount of yeast in some warm water with a tablespoon of flour.  If it rises, it means it’s still active.

Dry yeast on the other hand can be kept for up to 2 years.   This is especially handy if you don’t bake with yeast very often.  However, dry yeast usually contains additive sorbitan monostearate (E491).


In recipes requiring yeast, different yeast types and amounts can be stated.  That can be very confusing.  Also, depending on the origin of the recipe the amount can be stated as a cube or a cake of yeast.  Here are the most common yeast packaging sizes:
  • Dry yeast in small packs has most universal weight.  One packet, one sachet or one envelope weighs7 grams (0.25 oz or teaspoons).   1 teaspoon (5 ml) of dry yeast equals 3.5 grams

  • Fresh yeast packaging differs significantly.  In Australia it’s commonly produced in 1 kg blocks and then cut up into prepackaged small chunks or sold at the counter according to the customer’s requirements.  US cake of fresh yeast is packed in 0.6 oz or 17 grams.  If a recipe of Europeanorigin asks for a cube of fresh yeast, the required weight is 42 grams or 1.5 oz or 2.5 US cake portions.


The packaging types, sizes and measuring systems aren’t the only thing needing conversions.  If you only have dry yeast and the recipe calls for fresh yeast, what do you do?  Fresh yeast to dry yeast conversion and other way round is an easier one.  Very often I read in different recipes suggestion to half  or double the amount to change the type of yeast.  That would result in too much of dry yeast of too little of fresh and longer proving time.
The rule of thumb is dividing or multiplying by 3:
  • from fresh yeast to dry – divide amount by 3, eg. instead of 30 grams of fresh yeast use 10 grams of dry
  • from dry yeast to fresh – multiply by 3, meaning 7 grams or dry yeast becomes 21 grams of fresh.
Another easy way to remember yeast conversion is:
10g of fresh yeast = 1 teaspoon of dry yeast
10 : 3 = 3.33 g
As you can see above, this is close to 3.5 g – the average weight of one level teaspoon of dry yeast.  Teaspoon volume varies depending on the manufacturer and the shape.  However, a few grams more or less of yeast won’t make a huge difference in your recipe.
The amount of dry yeast in recipes and on the packaging instruction is often exaggerated.  As a result the dough rises too quickly and has a yeasty taste.  Reduce the amount of yeast and allow the dough a bit of extra time if necessary.
Happy baking!